A Study of the Types of Oral Errors that University Students Want to Have Corrected in an EFL Classroom in Quetta, Pakistan


  • Ahmed Faraz


Errors and mistakes, Oral errors corrections, Positive attitudes towards types of oral error correction.


This research study aims to investigate university students’ attitudes
towards the types of oral error correction in Quetta, Pakistan. A
quantitative research design was adopted in this study in order to answer
the research questions. However, total 202 students of different
departments of University of Balochistan took part in the research which
include 159 males and 43 females. They have English as a compulsory
subject in their course. Researcher utilized a questionnaire from the
previous study of Katayama (2007) for the collection of the data. A closeended questionnaire contained four parts and seventeen items based on
the research questions of oral errors corrections. The data of the present
research was analysed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
version 20 for obtaining the results of the research questions. The findings
of the study indicated that learners have positive attitudes towards the
types of oral errors corrections and they considered them very important
for learning speaking skills in English. The students found them beneficial
for their learning and desired corrections for their mistakes. Similarly,
this research study suggests that further research may be conducted to
find further opinions of learners as well as teachers on oral errors

Author Biography

Ahmed Faraz

Scholar of UOB 


Ahmad, I., Saeed, M., & Salam, M. (2013). Effects of corrective feedback

on academic achievement of students: Case of Government

Secondary Schools in Pakistan. International Journal of Science

and Research, 2(1), 36-40.

Alhaysony, M. (2016). Saudi EFL preparatory year students’ perception

about corrective feedback in oral communication. English

Language Teaching, 9(12), 47-61. doi: 10.5539/elt. v9n12p47.

Baleghizadeh, S., & Rezaei, S. (2010). Pre-service teacher cognition on

corrective feedback: A case study. Journal of Technology &

Education, 4(4), 321-327.

Bartram, M., & Walton, R. (1991). Correction, mistakes management: A

positive approach for language teacher. Hove: Language Teaching


Baz, E. H., Balçıkanlı, C., & Cephe, P. T. (2016). Perceptions of English

instructors and learners about corrective feedback. European

Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 54-68.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning.

Assessment in Education: Principal, Policy and Practice, 5(1), 7-

Brookhart, S. M. (2008). How to give effective feedback to your students.

Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum


Brown, H. D. (1994). Principals of language and teaching. New York:

Prentice Hall Regents.

Calsiyao, Irene S. (2015). Corrective feedback in classroom oral errors

among Kalinga- Apayao State College Students. International

Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 3(1), 394-

Creswell, J.W (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and

evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.).

University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Boston: Pearson.

Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Genc, Z. (2014). Correction spoken errors in English language teaching:

Preferences of Turkish EFL leaners at different proficiency levels.

Education and Science, 39(174), 259-271.

Hattie, J. (1987). Identifying the salient facets of a model of students

learning: A synthesis of meta-analysis. International Journal of

Educational Research, 11, 187-212.

Hattie, J. Gan, M. (2016). Instruction based on feedback. In Mayer, R. E.,

& Alexander, P. A. (Eds.). Handbook of research on learning and

instruction (pp. 249-269), New York: Routledge.

Harvina, H. (2014). Grammatical errors in speaking made by third year

English department students STKIP Abdi Pendidikan. Al-Talim

Journal, 21(3), 206-219.

Jie, X. (2008). Error theories and second language acquisition. US-China

Foreign Language, 6(1), 35-42.

Karbalaei, Alireza and Abdolkarim Karimian. (2014). On the effect of

type of teacher corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners’

writing performance. Indian Journal. Sci. Res, 7(1) 965-981.

Katayama, A. (2007). Students’ perceptions toward corrective feedback to

oral errors. Asian EFL Journal, 9(4), 289-305.

Mendez, E.H., & Cruz, R. (2012). Teachers' perceptions about oral

corrective feedback and their practice in EFL classrooms. Profile

Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 14(2), 63-75.

Philip, J. (2003). Constraints on noticing the gap: Nonnative speakers’

noticing of recast in NS-NNS interaction. Studies in Second

Language Acquisition, 25, 99-126.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed.). New

York: Routledge Publishers.

Russell, J., & Spada, N. (2006). The effectiveness of corrective feedback

for second language acquisition: A meta-analysis of the research.

In Norris, J. & Ortega, L. (Eds.), Synthesizing research on

language learning and teaching (pp. 133-164). Amsterdam:


Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied

Linguistics 10, 209-230.

Tomczyk, E. (2013). Perceptions of oral errors and their corrective

feedback: Teachers vs. students. Journal of Language Teaching

and Research, 4(5), 924-931. doi: 10.4304/jltr.4.5.924-931.

Walsh, S. (2006). Investigating classroom discourse. New York:

Routledge Publishers.

Wiggins, G. P. (1993). Assessing student performance. San Francisco:

Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Winne, P.H., & Butler, D. L. (1994). Student cognition in learning from

teaching. International Encyclopaedia of Education, 2, 5738-5775.